Archives for category: hunting

Nighttime in the forests of Taiwan is velvety dark. Mysterious cries float through the leaves and massive tree trunks. A myriad of frogs, insects, and night birds croak, sing, and chirp. Giant flying squirrels cheep to each other in the canopy. And then you hear it: A sharp, echoing bark! Is it a dog?

Barking Deer in Fushan Forest

A tiny doe licking her fur to complete her evening grooming routine.

No, it’s Taiwan’s barking deer — English call them muntjac (latin name, muntiacus reevesi). These terrier sized deer have little antlers and fangs, apparently for fighting to maintain territory. The image above was taken by me in Fushan Experimental Forest; the image below is from


Male showing antlers and canine teeth.

These deer, called Shan Xiang in Mandarin, used to be favored prey of Taiwan’s indigenous hunters who used bow and arrow, and nets. Japanese logging at the turn of the century, farming, and development have reduced the forest-meadow interface that these animals prefer. They are protected now.

But the deer could be making a comeback. During my travels I heard them barking in several nighttime forests and as you can see above, I spotted little does grazing and grooming in the evening and morning. Also, indigenous farmers mentioned that Shan Xiang will sneak into gardens that are located near forest edges. I hope this charming Taiwanese animal continues to survive and thrive!

Moving south again to Taiwan, I would like to share a picture of an aboriginal dog from the Atayal village of Smangus in the mountainous center of the island. I hope to see many more of these beautiful, intelligent animals during my research trip beginning in December.

These dogs are boar-hunters, companions, and guards for the tribal villages of the mountains. They are always inky-black, with sharp upturned ears, alert brown eyes, and muscular, compact bodies. I was sorely tempted to bargain for a puppy…


Can you spot the noodles in the dog’s dish?

If Taiwanese tribes are indeed related to seafaring Austronesian peoples as suggested by linguistic similarities, then these unusual Taiwanese dogs may be ancestral to the extinct poi dog of Polynesian cultures in Hawai’i. Below is a historic picture of a Hawai’ian woman with her poi dog. These dogs were small and short-legged, showing how quickly dog breeds can be altered in size and appearance.


I encountered a variety of native dogs while working with the Pumé hunter-gatherers of southern Venezuela. These puppies, photographed by me in 1993, were being toted by a young lady and her grandmother packed for a wet season camp move several miles away.


Unlike Taiwanese Atayal dogs, Pumé dogs are typically white with black spots. But the two breeds are similar in their athletic wiry build, keen intelligence, and excellent value as hunters, companions, and sentinels. Many native special breeds (like the poi dog) are now extinct. But where would we be without them? Hats off to Native dogs everywhere!